Jumu’ah (also rendered jum’ah; Arabic: صلاة الجمعة ṣalāt al-ǧumʿah, “Friday prayer”) is a congregational prayer (salah) that Muslims hold every Friday, just after noon in lieu of dhuhr. It is mentioned in the Qur’an as:
O ye who believe! When the call is proclaimed to prayer on Friday (the Day of Assembly), hasten earnestly to the Remembrance of Allah, and leave off business (and traffic): That is best for you if ye but knew!
And when the Prayer is finished, then may ye disperse through the land, and seek of the Bounty of Allah: and celebrate the Praises of Allah often (and without stint): that ye may prosper.
—Qur’an, sura 62 (Al-Jumua), ayat 9-10
The jumu’ah prayer is half the dhuhr prayer, for convenience, preceded by a khutbah (a sermon as a technical replacement of the two reduced rakaʿāt of the ordinary dhuhr prayer), and followed by a congregational prayer, led by the imam. In most cases the khaṭīb also serves as the imam. Attendance is strictly incumbent upon all adult males who are legal residents of the locality. Salaat-ul-Juma’a in the presence of a congregation is not obligatory for female Muslims.
The muezzin makes the call to prayer, called the adhan, The khaṭīb is supposed to deliver two sermons, stopping and sitting briefly between them. In practice, the first sermon is longer and contains most of the content. The second sermon is very brief and concludes with a dua, after which the muezzin calls the iqama. This signals the start of the main two rak’at prayer of Jumu’ah.
Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, “On every Friday the angels take their stand at every gate of the mosques to write the names of the people chronologically (i.e. according to the time of their arrival for the Friday prayer) and when the Imam sits (on the pulpit) they fold up their scrolls and get ready to listen to the sermon.”
—Collected by Muhammad al-Bukhari, Sahih al-Bukhari
Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Nishapuri relates that the Islamic prophet Muhammad (pbuh) used to read Surah 87 (Al-Ala) and Surah 88, (Al-Ghashiya), in Eid Prayers and also in Friday prayers. If one of the festivals fell on a Friday, the Prophet would have made sure to read these two Surahs in the prayers.
A person who goes to Friday prayer and remains quiet during the sermon is said to have his sins between that Friday and last forgiven.